EX LIBRIS 2018.

Tranzicija

Tranzicija je sveobuhvatan proces promena i prelaz „iz socijalizma u kapitalizam“, povratak u tržišnu privredu i u građansku demokratiju. Kao svetski proces započeo je 90-ih godina 20. veka, u svim postkomunističkim zemljama. U nekim zemljama (kao npr. u Srbiji) zastupljen je sve do danas. Glavni uzrok tranzicije je, prema teoretičarima, ekonomska kriza koja je pogodila ove zemlje. Pored ekonomskih promena i sveobuhvatne privatizacije, došlo je i do dubokih promena političkog sistema. Ekonomista J. Kornai smatra da nikada do sada nije došlo do takve mirne, nenasilne, brze i sveobuhvatne promene društva, što ovu tranziciju čini jedinstvenim događajem u ljudskoj istoriji.
Uprkos opštoj pozitivnoj oceni, tranzicija nije bila lišena velikih društvenih protivrečnosti. Plaćena je i plaća se velika ekonomska i socijalna cena. Došlo je do ogromnog pada BDP (Bruto društvenog proizvoda), porasta nezaposlenosti, socijalne nejednakosti i siromaštva, društvenih konflikata i ratova. U svim društvima sprovedena je pljačkaška privatizacija, što je doprinelo još većem siromaštvu.
Mnogi autori govore o dobitnicima tranzicije (uglavnom mlađa, obrazovana populacija) i gubitnicima tranzicije (stariji, nezaposleni, slabije obrazovani, koji se nisu mogli prilagoditi novim okolnostima). Specifičnost tranzicije je da se ona odvija pod uticajem brojnih međunarodnih, finansijskih agencija (Svetske banke i Međunarodnog monetarnog fonda), koje su bitno uticali na ključne ekonomske i socijalne reforme.
Zemlje u kojima su kapitalizam i zapadna demokratija razvijeni, nisu iskusile tranziciju. Ipak, ove zemlje su pretrpele velike probleme zbog kapitalizma koji nije mogao da se kontroliše. Posle poslednjeg kraha svetske berze devedesetih godina i ove zemlje su ušle u promene koje imaju za rezultat sve veće siromaštvo najširih slojeva i sve lošije uslove za život. I razvijene zemlje se nalaze u nekom vidu tranzicije koje će promeniti budućnost svih nas.

Transition

Transition started in the 1990s in all post-communist countries. Transition in this sense implies an all-encompassing process of change. Societies shifted from socialism to capitalism, creating both market economies and civil democracies. In some countries (for example Serbia) transition forces continue to this day. According to some theoreticians, economic crises and sweeping privatization are the main reasons for transition in these countries. Economic changes and privatization are coupled with deep changes of political systems. Economist J. Kurnai thinks that such non-violent, peaceful and all-encompassing rapid changes in societies did not take place before. He considers these transitions unique in history.
Despite being labeled as positive, these transitions have had their share of contradictions. Economic and social tolls were and still are very high. GDP (gross domestic product) has fallen sharply, while unemployment, social inequality, poverty and social conflicts increased. In all these societies privatization with very little law and order oversight took place, which led to even more poverty.
We can identify the winners: mostly the younger and the educated. The losers are older, unemployed, less educated, and unable to adjust to the new circumstances.
An important factor of these transitions is the influence of numerous international financial agencies such as The World Bank and The International Monetary Fund on key economic and social reforms.
Countries where capitalism and western democracy are developed didn’t experience these transitions. However, those countries suffered huge negative effects related to out-of-control capitalism. One example is the stock market crisis in the nineties when these countries entered changes leading to greater poverty and to economic disparity. We should note that developed countries are currently in some kind of transition that will undoubtedly influence the futures of all of us.